Workbook of Latin Grammar

Compounds of quis and quī

A variety of compounds incorporate the interrogative pronoun quis, quid or the interrogative adjective (and relative pronoun) quī, quae, quod. The form of quis or quī declines regardless of where it appears in the compound (ie. alicūius, quemvīs, ūnumquidque).

The compounds quisnam, ecquis, and aliquis have forms based upon both quis, quid and quī, quae, quod.

Quisnam, quidnam is an emphatic interrogative pronoun and quīnam, quaenam, quodnam is an emphatic interrogative adjective. The emphatic however is often best translated into English as if it were a simple interrogative (ie. “who?”, “what?”, “which?”, etc.).

Num quisnam vestrum est quī nōn tribum habeat?

Who is there of you who does not have a tribe?”

Ecquis, ecquid is an interrogative pronoun and ecquī, ecqua, ecquod is an interrogative adjective meaning “is anyone?” or "is any?". Ecquis is not found in the genitive singular. In the plural, only the nominative and accusative are found. The form ecqua is often used in place of ecquae.

Ecquis est melior exitus hōc? “Is anything a better death than this?”

Aliquis, aliquid is a pronoun and aliquī, aliqua, aliquod is an adjective meaning "someone" or "something". The form aliqua is used in place of aliquae, except in the feminine nominative plural.

Eō annō aliquid pācis fuit. “In that year, there was something of peace”

Palūs aliquam spem salūtis oblāta est. “The marsh offered some hope for safety.”

Instead of aliquis, the indefinite pronoun quis, quid and the indefinite adjective quī, qua, quod are used after sī, nisi, num, and nē (sometimes printed as sīquis or nēquis). These should be translated “anyone, anything” or “any”.

qua cūra tuī Corydōnis habet tē, venītō.

“If any concern for your Corydon possesses you, come!”

The compounds quisque, ūnusquisque, and quispiam have forms based upon both quis, quid and quī, quae, quod but use quis instead of quī in the masculine singular nominative adjective.

Quisque, quidque is a pronoun and quisque, quaeque, quodque is an adjective meaning "each".

Quaesīvērunt quid quisquequāque rē audīvisset.

“They asked what each person had heard about each matter.”

Ūnusquisque, ūnumquidque is a pronoun and ūnusquisque, ūnaquaeque, ūnumquodque is an adjective meaning “each” or “each and every”. Both ūnus and quis decline in this compound (ie. ūnīuscūiusque). It is sometimes printed as a phrase (ie. unam... quamque) rather than as a single compound. This form can only exists in the singular.

Ūnus quisque nostrum eōdem metū movētur. “Each of us is moved by the same fear.”

In ūnōquōque virōrum bonōrum deus habitat.

“A god dwells in each and every of good men.”

Quispiam, quidpiam is a pronoun and quispiam, quaepiam, quodpiam is an adjective meaning "anyone, anything” or “any".

Nihil dictum est quod obscūrum cuipiam vestrum est.

“Nothing has been said which is unclear to any of you.”

The compound quisquam only has forms based upon quis, quid.

Quisquam, quidquam is a pronoun or an adjective meaning "anyone, anything” or “any". Quisquam only exists in the singular. The form quicquam is often given instead of quidquam.

Nūlla invidia cūiusquam bonī bonō est. “A good person possesses no envy of any good.”

(literally, “For a good person, there is no envy of any good.”

The compounds quīdam, quīvīs, and quīlibet only have forms based upon quī, quae, quod but, despite this, have quid and quod in the neuter singular.

Quīdam, quaedam, quiddam is a pronoun and quīdam, quaedam, quoddam is an adjective meaning “certain” or “some”. The consonant -m changes to -n before d- (quōrundam, quendam, quandam, etc.)

Audiō quendam timōrem in urbe esse. “I hear that there is a certain fear in the city.”

Initia quārundam rērum in nostrā potestāte sunt.

“The beginnings of certain things are in our control.”

Quīvīs, quaevīs, quidvīs and quīlibet, quaelibet, are pronouns and quīvīs, quaevīs, quodvīs and quīlibet, quaelibet, quodlibet adjectives meaning “any” “any you like” or “any given”.

Effice quidvīs! “Do anything you like!”

Phoebus tunc tempora dē quālibet arbore cingēbat.

“Phoebus then used to wreath his brow from any given tree.”


Quīcumque, quaecumque, quodcumque is an indefinite relative pronoun meaning “whoever” or “whatever”. Quisquis, quidquid is also an indefinite relative pronoun of the same meaning but is only regular in the forms quisquis, quidquid (or quicquid), and quōquō.

Quaecumque es, tuus nōn sum. “Whoever you are, I am not yours!”

Quicquid mortāle in Aenēā fuerat, Numīcius pūrgāvit.

Whatever was mortal in Aeneas, Numicius purified.”

Be careful not to confuse these compound pronouns and adjectives with any of the following words: quoque ("also"), quidem ("indeed, even"), equidem ("truly, indeed"), nēquīquam ("in vain"), quamquam ("although"), quamvīs ("as much" or "although"), quondam ("at one time").

Some additional notes

A brief discussion of the relative indefiniteness of quis, aliquis, quispiam, and quīdam can be found at Allen and Greenough §310.

Forms of aliquis are sometimes used as adjectives whereas forms of aliquī are only rarely used as pronouns.

Quisque is sometimes treated as though it is plural.

Quisque suum ducem intentēs cōnstitērunt.

Each person stood firm, intent on their own leader.”

Forms of quīcumque and quisquis are frequently found as part of relative clauses inluding the antecedant (see Assignment 20).

Nōn possum dīcere quōquō modō hoc accipiētur.

“I am not able to say the way in which this will be received”

or “I am not able to say in which way this will be recieved.”

Mittō meum animum in quōcumque saeculō fuērunt.

“I send my mind into whichever time in which they lived”

Activity 1

Indicate gender, number, and case for the following compounds of quis and quī. Provide all possibilities (the number of correct combinations are indicated in parentheses)

Sample: aliquem (2) Answer: Masc. Sing. Acc. / Fem. Acc. Sing.

Sample: quīdam (2) Answer: Masc. Sing. Nom. / Masc. Plur. Nom.

Sample: ūnaquaeque (1) Answer: Fem. Sing. Nom.

quidquid (2)

quōrundam (2)

ūnīuscūiusque (3)

aliquā (1)

ecquam (1)

ūnumquemque (1)

quidquam (2)

quāslibet (1)

quendam (1)

quīvīs (2)

quōque (3)

quidpiam (2)

ecquis (2)

ūnīcuique (3)

quōscumque (1)

aliqua (3)

quaenam (4)

cuivīs (3)

quandam (1)

quālibet (1)

Activity 2

Translate the highlighted word or phrase using the provided compound of quis and quī.

Sample: Some portion (f.) of life is subtracted daily. (aliquī)

Answer: aliqua

Sample: Whatever it is, it is not a crime, but a mistake. (quisquis)

Answer: quidquid (or quicquid)

Sample: Each and every drop (f.) receives an image of the sun. (ūnusquisque)

Answer: ūnaquaeque

Their rashness would be the cause of some destruction (f.). (aliquī)

What each night (f.) brings is uncertain. (quisque)

I fear lest these things should seem too obsolete to anyone. (quispiam)

I do not accuse anyone (m.). (quisquam)

I am ready to send whichever ones (m.) I have. (quīcumque)

Nothing was more foul than this at any time (n.) of the Republic. (quīvīs)

Some men diminish the crime of the king. (quīdam)

The Good descends into each and everyone (m.) of us. (ūnusquisque)

Hold your friends close to heart. You will see daily whomever (m.) you wish. (quīcumque)

Seek whatever country (f. plur.) you please. (quīlibet)

Do you have anything which holds you back? (ecquis)

Ariovistus sent someone (m.) from among his legates to Caesar. (aliquis)

Great poets captivate anyone (m.), even someone unwilling and hard to please. (quīlibet)

It us unclear how long the life of each of us will be. (quisque)

Whatever can happen is endurable by a wise person. (quisquis)

What unworthy fortune (f.) has inflicted this war upon you? (quīnam)

It is possible to discuss each and every thing (plur.). (ūnus quisque)

Did the Romans send any legates (m.) to Hannibal regarding peace? (ecquī)

It is a mistake to disparage any study (n.) on account of the sins of its practioners. (quispiam)

The location protected the ships from certain winds (m.). (quīdam)

Simple Sentences

Translate the following sentences using grammar from this assignment.

Quisque prō sē fugam cēpit.

Ecqua mentiō pācis in urbe est?

Pompeius quendam tumulum occupāvit.

Ō superī, quamnam spem reī pūblicae datis?

Timeō mandāre cuiquam salūtem meam.

Quīvis potest intellegere hoc esse verum.

Haec causa ad vītam ūnīus cūiusque nostrum pertinet.

Habeō aliquam spem dē rē pūblicā.

Quīcumque hoc fēcit, suppliciō dignus est.

Iūdicēs ūnum quodlibet hōrum nōn crēdidērunt.

Examples in Context

Translate the following modified examples.

n) Context for the sentence(s)

Modified example sentence(s)

[grammatical and contextual notes, if any]

1) Cicero complains about the lack of letters.

Vocō et quaerō ecquid litterārum sit. Negant.

[litterārum, gen. partitive; Negant, here “say no”]

2) Cicero despairs of the lack of desire for peace among the Republican allies.

Quidvīs potius est quam castra.

[potius, here “better”; castra, here perhaps a metonymy for war]

3) Seneca expresses his optimism that we are each in control of our own state of happiness.

Ūnusquisque facere sē beatum potest.

[facere, here “to make X Y” in which both X and Y are accusative]

4) Cicero argues that we have no reason to adore the wealth of others.

Quid magnitudō dīvitiārum ad ūnumquemque nostrum pertinet?

[Quid magnitudō...pertinet, "what does the size... matter?"]

5) Cicero claims that Verres has damaged the legacy of Scipio Aemilianus in despoiling a statue of Diana which Scipio had restored to the city of Segesta.

Quisnam memoriam Pūbliī Scīpiōnis mortuī tuēbitur?

[tuēbitur, deponent “watch over” or “guard”; mortuī, a participle]

6) Caesar’s soldiers show discipline while sacking Avaricum after exacting vengence for the massacre of Roman troops garrisoned at Cenabum.

Nōn fuit quisquam quī praedae studēret.

[iniēcit, here “inspire” or “cause”]

7) Ariadne awakes but doesn’t find anyone around.

Spectō sīquid nisī lītora cernam.

[sī, here interrogative “whether”; nisī, “except”; cernam, subj. in the indirect question.]

8) Cicero acknowledges that it is not unheard for someone to take bribes.

Concēdō. Forsitan aliquis aliquandō eius modī quidpiam fēcerit.

[aliquandō, “at some time”; eius modī, “of this sort” ie. taken a bribe; fēcerit, “might have done” a potential subjunctive (see Assignment 8, additional notes)]

9) Seneca imagines the authority of the Roman emperor, who personifies the goddess Fortuna.

Quid cuique mortālium datum esse velit, Fortūna meō ōre prōnūntiat.

[meō, this statement is imagined to be expressed by the emperor himself]

10) Livy described internal conflict between the Consuls and the Tribunes.

Quemcumque līctor iussū cōnsulis prendisset, tribūnus mittī iubēbat.

[prendisset, “detain”; mittī, pass. inf. “set free”]

11) Aeneas has just revealed to Dido that he is a refugee from Troy.

Ō Dīdō, est nōn quicquid ubīque gentis Dardaniae, quae magnum per orbem sparsa est.

[ubīque, here “anywhere”; Dardaniae, "Dardanian" or “Trojan”]

12) Aeneas heeds the reprimands of Mercury, who has been sent by Jupiter to remind Aeneas of his task.

Sequimur tē, quisquis es, et imperiō iterum pārēmus.

[iterum, perhaps “once again”; pārēmus, takes a dative object]

13) A former officer of Caesar, Labienus, swears allegiance to Pompey.

Labiēnus iūrat sē eundem cāsum subitūrum esse, quemcumque eī fortūna tribuisset.

[eundem, “the same”; subitūrum esse, future infinitive; eī, refers to Pompey]

14) Livy explains that some of the war elephants fell from the rafts but made it to shore regardless.

Quīdam elephantēs saevientēs in flūmen excidērunt sed dēiectīs rēctōribus stabilēs pondere ipsō in terram ēvāsērunt.

[excidērunt, “fall” from the rafts; rēctōribus, here “elephant drivers”]

15) Seneca relates that there is a class of people who say absolutely anything to anyone.

Quīdam obviīs narrant quae tantum amīcīs committenda sunt et in quāslibet aurēs exonerant quidquid illōs ūrit.

[obviīs, here “anyone they meet”; tantum, “only”; ūrit, here “annoy”]