Workbook of Latin Grammar

Clauses of result

This assignment covers two clauses of result. The first is simply the result clause. The second is the noun clause of result. Both clauses are introduced with the subordinating conjunction ut and contain a subjunctive verb. Negative clauses of result are introduced by ut … nōn, or sometimes by quīn.

Result Clause is a dependent clause which expresses the effect portion of a cause and effect. The cause portion of the cause and effect is contained in the main or introductory clause. In a result clause, the subordinating conjunction ut is usually translated “that”, “as to” or “with the result that”.

Domitius hoc adeō celeriter fēcit ut simul adesse et venīre nuntiārētur.

“Domitius did this so quickly that he was simultaneously announced to be present and to be on his way.”

Nīl ita cēlābās ut nōn ego cōnscius essem.

“You concealed nothing to the extent that I was not aware.”

A result clause is usually, but not always, signaled by adjective or adverb in the primary clause which expresses degree. Words indicating degree can include: tantus, tālis, sīc, ita, tam, adeō, , etc.

Ita tē parā ut, sī inclāmāverō, advolēs.

“Prepare yourself so that, if I call for you, you will come running.”

Nōn tam sum dēmēns ut nesciam quid dē morte Clōdī sentiātis.

“I am not so demented as to be unaware of what you think about the death of Clodius.”

Tanta tempestās subitō coorta est ut nūlla navium cursum tenēre posset.

So great a storm suddenly arose that none of the ships were able to keep their course.”

A noun clause of result expresses a simple occurrence usually as either the subject or object of a verb.

A noun clause of result also appears as the subject of some impersonal verbs, especially those which indicate an action coming to pass (now or still to come). These verbs include: accidit, accedit, contingit, ēvenit, fit (also factum est), restat, sequitur, etc. When a noun clause of result functions as the subject of an impersonal verb it may be translated into English with “that” or idiomatically as in the following examples.

Restat ut in castra Sextī aut Brūtī nōs cōnferāmus.

It remains that we join the camps of Sextus or those of Brutus.”

or “It remains for us to join the camps of Sextus or those of Brutus”

(literally, “That we join the camps of Sextus or those of Brutus remains.”)

Sequitur ut ista optābilia sint. “It follows that these things are desirable.”

Ita fit ut māter omnium bonārum rērum sit sapientia.

It happens thus that the mother of all good things is wisdom.”

A noun clause of result may also appear after several periphrastic constructions, including: consequens est, reliquum est, etc.

Reliquum est ut nēmō eum iūdiciō dēfenderit.

It remains that no one defended him in the trial.”

Additionally, a noun clause of result may also be in apposition to a noun or a neuter singular pronoun.

Hoc contingit sapientī sōlī, ut nihil faciat invitus.

This happens to the wise person alone, that he does nothing unwillingly.”

Also, a noun clause of result functions as the object of the verb faciō, its compounds (efficiō and perficiō), or similar expressions. As an object of a verb of effecting can be translated into English with the “that” or idiomatically as in the following examples.

Fortūna vestra facit ut et īrae meae et ōrātiōnī temperem.

“Your fortune brings to pass that I am moderate in both my anger and my speech.”

or “Your fortune makes me be moderate in both my anger and my speech.”

Possessiōnem opum tibi nōn interdīcō, sed efficere volō ut illās intrepidē possideās.

“I don’t prohibit you from possessing wealth, but I want to cause you to possess it without fear.”

With such verbs in the active voice (faciō, etc.), the clause is usually negated by nē, but sometimes by ut nōn.

Efficiam quemquam vōce posthāc lacessās.

I shall bring about that you don’t challenge anyone with your voice anymore.”

Sometimes a noun clause of result may appear with the subordinating conjunction quīn, but only following a negation or a rhetorical question in the introductory clause.

A negative noun clause of result is sometimes introduced by the subordinating conjunction quīn after the phrase facere nōn possum, fierī nōn potest, nequeō, nōn potior, and similar expressions (nōn in potestāte, etc.).

The quīn clause here may be translated “that … not” but is often best translated idiomatically as in some of the examples below.

Nōn est in nostrā potestāte quīn illa .

“It is not in my power that these things not come to pass.”

Facere nōn possum quīn tibi gratiās agam.

“I was not able to stop from giving thanks to you”

(literally, “I was not able to bring about I do not give thanks to you.”)

Nōn possum quīn exclāmem.

“I am not able to stop from shouting out.”

or “I can’t do anything except shout out.”

Occasionally, a negative result clause will be introduced by quīn. These clauses however can often be equally understood as clauses of characteristic (see Assignment 19).

Translated “that ... not”, sometimes better translated “without” and an English participle (“-ing”).

Nēmō erat adeō tardus aut fugiēns labōris quīn statim occurrendum putāret.

“No one was so slow or avoiding of labor that he did not consider rushing to attack immediately.”

Nōn ūllus flāre ventus poterat quīn nāvēs aliquā ex parte secundum cursum habērent.

“No wind was able to blow without the ships having a favorable course to some degree.”

Some additional notes

The phrase noun clause of result refers to a range of factitive statements, some of which bear only a slim resemblence to result clauses. Some of these clauses, such as those in which the negation is nē, are perhaps better understood as relating to purpose clauses.

The relative pronoun quī, quae, quod can also introduce a clause of result with a subjunctive verb (just as a negative result clause can introducted). Such a clause is not meaningfully distinct from a relative clause of characteristic, and so these clauses are treated in Assignment 19.

For the additional uses of quīn, see Assignments 17 and 19.

A noun clause of result beginning fore ut is used in place of a future infinitive where the future infinitive form is otherwise impossible (see Allen and Greenough §569.3.a). See also Assignment 13 additional notes.

Result clauses do not follow the rules of sequence of tenses. When the primary verb is past tense, the result clause may include either a perfect tense or imperfect tense verb (rarely a pluperfect). Woodcock suggests that the perfect tense represents an actual result whereas the imperfect tense represents a logical result (see Woodcock §164). Allen and Greenough suggest that a perfect tense in a result clause “emphasizes the result” (see Allen and Greenough §485c note 1). For more information about tenses in result clauses, see Woodcock §162-5)

Noun clauses of result regularly express time same as the main verb, though there are a few examples where a perfect subjunctive is used to represent a past completed event (see Woodcock §168).

Result clause will sometimes occur without a marker in the primary clause.

Collis est silvestris ut nōn facile intrōrsus perspicī posset.

“The hill was woody such that one could not see through into it.”

After some phrases, such as opus est or mos est, a noun clause of result may appear in apposition to the noun.

Quid tibi opus est ut sīs bonus? “What need is there for you to be good?”

Est mōs hominum ut nōlint eundem plūribus rēbus excellere.

“It is the habit of humans to not want one person to excel in many things.”

A result clause beginning quam ut may accompany a comparative in the primary clause (translated “than to” or “too… to”).

Prīncipis maior est fortuna quam ut sōlāciō egeat.

“The fortune of the king is too great to need comfort.”

(or, “The fortune of the ruler is greater than to need comfort.”)

longius iam prōcessistī quam ut possīs verbīs sānārī

“You have already gone too far to be able to be cured by words.”

The imperative fac (and other imperative verbs and phrases such as cura, da operam, vide, etc.) can be used with ut (or nē) and a subjunctive verb. These expressions are better understood as clauses of purpose, not clauses of result.

Fac modo ut veniās. “Come!” (literally, “Make it only that you come.”)

Da operam nē quid umquam invītus faciās.

“Never do anything unwillingly!”

(literally, “Give effort that you never do anything unwillingly!”)

These same expressions may appear with a lone subjunctive.

Fac valeās! “Be well!” (literally, “Make it that you are well!”)

Activity 1

Identify which of the following labels best explains the underlined clause: result clause or noun clause of result.

Sample: Eō dēliciārum pervēnimus ut nisi gemmās calcāre nōlimus.

Answer: result clause

Sample: Ex hōc factum est ut Prīscus Attum Navium ad sē arcesseret.

Answer: noun clause of result

Caesar effēcit reliquīs navibus ut nāvigārī commodē posset.

Non adeō cecidī ut īnfrā tē quoque sim, quō inferius nihil esse potest.

Eius bellī fāma effēcit nē sē pugnae committerent Salpīnātēs.

Nōn faciam ut illum offendam.

Ex cōnsiliō ita discessum est ut bellum gererētur.

Magnō cāsū accidit ut Basilus in Ambiorigem incautum etiam atque imparātum incideret.

Nihil adeō validum est ut rapidō igne Iovis firmius maneat.

Numquam ita magnificē quicquam dicam quīn virtūs tua id superet.

Nōn possum patī quīn tibi caput dēmulceam.

Quārtae aciēī tantā vī in Pompēī equitēs impetum fēcērunt ut nēmō eōrum cōnsisteret.

Activity 2

Identify which of the following labels best explains the underlined clause: result clause, noun clause of result, purpose clause, fear clause, or jussive noun clause.

Sample: Nihil tam utile est ut in trānsitū prōsit.

Answer: result clause

Sample: Nōn faciam ut ēnumerem miseriās omnīs in quās incidī per summam iniūriam.

Answer: noun clause of result

Sample: Ūfēns īnfēlīx occidit nē nostrum dēdecus aspiceret.

Answer: purpose clause

Sample: Metuit ut ipse illam tempestātem posset opibus suīs sustinēre.

Answer: fear clause

Sample: Ūllī cīvitātī Germānōrum persuādērī nōn potuit ut Rhēnum trānsīret.

Answer: jussive noun clause

Ōrant ut adventus Caesaris expectētur.

Sequitur ut nōn tantum īrātus sit sapiēns sed īrācundus.

Timēmus nē quando moriāmur, cum omne mōmentum mors priōris habitūs sit.

Sabīnus dīxit id clāriōre vōce ut magna pars mīlitum exaudīret.

Cēterī ita sunt stultī ut āmissā rē pūblicā piscīnās suās futurās esse salvās spērāre videantur.

Tantus ārdor fuit ut eōdem impetū quō fūderant hostem Rōmānī castra caperent.

Vercingetorīx hortātur ut commūnis lībertātis causā arma capiant.

Dī facerent ut mē summā dē puppe vidērēs.

Brūtus viam flexit nē obvius fieret.

Restat ut pauca dē eīs in quōs praerogātīvae favor inclīnāvit dīcam.

Monet ut ignēs in castrīs fierī prohibeat nē quā eius adventūs procul significātiō fīat.

Iuppiter timuit nē forte sacer aether tot ab ignibus flammās conciperet.

Hūc dērigē gressum ut praemia digna Camillae capiās.

Haec Caesar ita administrābat ut condiciōnēs pācis dīmittendās nōn exīstimaret.

Hoc cotīdiē meditāre ut possīs aequō animō vītam relinquere.

Timeō ut sustineās.

Fierī nūllō modō poterat quīn Cleomenī parcerētur.

Hic servō spē lībertātis magnīsque praemiīs persuādet ut litterās ad Caesarem dēferat.

Ipse verētur nē illa mē sibi praeferat.

Nihil mihi tam parvī est quīn mē id pigeat perdere.

Simple Sentences

Translate the following sentences using grammar from this assignment.

Nōn possum quīn revertar.

Eādem nocte accidit ut lūna esset plēna.

Clēmentia efficit ut magnum discrīmen inter rēgem tyrannumque sit.

Ille solēbat dīcere nūllum esse librum tam malum ut nōn aliquā parte prodesset.

Facere nōn possum quīn litterās cottīdiē ad tē mittam ut tuās accipiam.

Superest ut deus mē hāc sollicitūdine exsolvat.

Ita distinēbar ut vix huic tantulae epistulae tempus habuerim.

Nōn potest fierī ut vir bonus malīs nōn īrāscātur.

Nēmō est tam fortis quīn reī novitāte perturbētur.

Quīdam adeō in latebrās refūgērunt ut pūtent quidquid in lūce est in turbidō esse.

Examples in Context

Translate the following modified examples.

n) Context for the sentence(s)

Modified example sentence(s)

[grammatical and contextual notes, if any]

1) Scylla expresses her fears on behalf of the invading king Minos, with whom she has fallen in love.

Quis tam dūrus est ut in tē dērigēre inmītem hastam nōn īnscius audeat?

[nōn īnscius, the sense is adverbial, perhaps “knowingly”; dērigēre from dērigeō]

2) Ovid invokes a curse upon Ibis, the pseudonymous subject of his poem.

Tālēs ruīnae miserō tibi venient ut in lacrimās mē quoque cōgī posse putem.

[miserō, dative in agreement with tibi; cōgī, passive inf., here “driven”]

3) Cicero writes to the exiled Ligarus that he has made a seemingly successful speech on Ligarus’ behalf to convince Caesar to restore his rights.

Facere nōn potuī quīn tibi et sententiam et voluntātem meam dēclārārem.

[tibi, referring to Ligarus; voluntātem, here “goodwill”]

4) One of Pompey’s commanders in Spain returns to his camps, resigned to their defeat by Caesar.

Afrānius sē in castra recipit, sīc parātus ut, quīcumque cāsus accidisset, hunc quiētō et aequō animō ferret.

[hunc, explained by the relative clause quīcumque cāsus accidisset; sē... recipit, with the reflexive “withdraw” or “retreat”]

5) Helen writes in response to Paris reflecting on the promises which he has made to her.

Dīves epistula mūnera tanta promittit ut illa ipsās deās movēre possint.

[Dīves epistula, the subject; illa refers back to mūnera]

6) Seneca criticizes the faults of disquietude.

Vītam in peregrīnātiōne exigentibus hoc ēvenit ut multa hospitia habeant sed nūllās amīcitiās.

[exigentibus, substantive, “for those spending”; amīcitiās, here with same sense as amīcōs]

7) The Romans have a quiet night while on campaign againsts the Volscians.

Reliquum noctis adeō tranquilla omnia in castrīs fuērunt ut somnī quoque Rōmānīs cōpia esset.

[reliquum, acc. duration of time]

8) The Romans and the Albans despoil one another’s fields, leading to a declaration of war.

Forte ēvenit ut agrestēs Rōmānī ex Albānō agrō, Albānī agrestēs ex Rōmānō agrō praedās in vicem agerent.

9) Caesar explains that human nature deceives us in unfamiliar circumstances.

Commūnī vitiō nātūrae fit ut invīsitātīs atque incognitīs rēbus magis cōnfīdāmus vehementiusque exterreāmur.

[vehementius, an adverb, parallel to magis]

10) Cicero explains the pitfalls of autobiography

Accēdit ut minor sit fidēs, minor sit auctōritās, multī dēnique reprehendant.

[Accēdit not from accido but accēdo, here meaning “it occurs (that)”]

11) Seneca recalls the habit of Quintus Sextius who each night undertook review of his deeds that day.

Faciēbat hoc Sextius ut cōnsummātō diē, cum sē ad nocturnam quiētem recēpisset, interrogāret animum suum.

[sē... recēpisset, with the reflexive “withdraw” or “retreat”]

12) Livy offers a putative comparison of Rome’s army to that of Alexander the Great.

Restat ut cōpiae cōpiis compārentur vel numerō vel mīlitum genere vel multitūdine auxiliōrum.

[copiae, “troops”; numero… genere… multitudine are ablatives of specification denoting the terms of comparison]

13) Valerius lays down the dictatorship but warns the Senate of continued discord within the city.

Discordiae intestinae et bellum externum fēcērunt ut rēs pūblica hōc magistrātū egēret.

[magistrātū, here “office”, referring to Valerius’ stint as dictator]

14) Ovid writes to his patron Messalinus and demonstrates bravery in the face of exile.

Sed cum arma ferās et vulnera saeva minēris, nōn tamen efficiēs ut timeāris mihi.

[the 2nd person subject here is non-specific (it is not Messalinus); mihi, here “by me”]

15) Caesar explains the Gallic custom of storing spoils of war in a public place, and notes that it was rare for a Gaul to violate this custom.

Nōn saepe accidit ut quispiam neglēctā religiōne aut capta apud sē occultāre aut posita tollere audēret.

[quispiam, “anyone” (see Assignment 5); neglēctā religiōne, abl. absolute; apud sē, “at one’s own home”]